《野性的呼唤》中的自然主义_英语文学论文
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摘要

自然主义最早由法国的小说家左拉提出, 美国小说家弗兰克﹒诺里斯将其介绍入美国,作为一种文学思潮,自然主义在美国的文学史上起过非常重要的作用。而杰克﹒伦敦则被认为是美国最伟大的自然主义小说家之一,他的自然主义观点在《野性的呼唤》中得到了充分的体现。达尔文的“大鱼吃小鱼, 适者生存”的自然主义观点在书中由巴克的形象充分地体现了出来。在我国,很多外语爱好者对《野性的呼唤》以及杰克﹒伦敦的其他的小说相当的熟悉,但是我国目前对杰克﹒伦敦的研究很大程度上是对其内容及写作手法等方面进行介绍和评议,为了更好的了解杰克﹒伦敦和他的作品,有必要对他的作品从其他的角度进行研究。本研究通过查阅图书和资料收集分析对比法等研究方法,对杰克﹒伦敦的动物小说《野性的呼唤》中的自然主义进行初步的研究,试图通过分析这些元素来揭示遗传,环境等是如何控制文中的主人公巴克的行为的,以期更好地理解文中的自然主义,更好的理解杰克﹒伦敦的其他作品。

关键词:自然主义,适者生存,野性的呼唤,杰克﹒伦敦

ABSTRACT

Naturalism was firstly formulated and applied to literature by the French novelist Emile Zola, and it was introduced to America by the American novelist Frank Norris. As a literary trend, naturalism had played an important part in American literature. Jack London is regarded as one of the greatest naturalist novelists, and he showed his philosophy of naturalism in The Call of the Wild. Darwin’s theory of “the big fish eat up the small, the fittest survive” is fully expressed through Buck’s image. In our country, a lot of English learners are very familiar with The Call of the Wild and Jack London’s other novels, but up to now, the studies on Jack London’s works in China are mainly introductions of the contents, writing skills and so on. In order to know more about Jack London and his works, there is necessity to research his works from some other aspects. In this paper the author used different methods such as consulting books, collecting, analyzing and comparing of data, ect. The author tries to do a tentative research on the naturalism of The Call of the Wild. It aims at analyzing the naturalistic elements in the novel to illuminate how environment, heredity determines the behaviors of the dramatis personae Buck, and thereby seek a broader understanding of naturalist literature in general, to know more about Jack London’s other works.

Key words: Naturalism,the fittest survive,The Call of the Wild,Jack London

1  Introduction

Since the 1900s, literary criticism has proliferated on Jack London. Some critics appraise his works and some appraise his personality; some people think his works are realism and some people think his works are naturalism. In his works, he gave the rich and colorful description, vivid description of the characters, besides, Jack London was a person with complex figure, and this is another reason that he and his works have been studied throughout the world.
Jack London was the pioneer of the naturalistic novels in America. He had been deeply affected by Darwin’s thoughts of constant struggle in nature and “the survival of the fittest”. London’s works were very popular in Europe, former Soviet Union and China.
 

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