分析《嘉莉妹妹》中的自然主义
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Abstract: Naturalism refers to a literary movement that emerged in 1890s, and was prevailing in 1990s in Europe and America. It is characterized by the true description of life, the absolute advocating of environmental and hereditary factors that play decisive roles in shaping people’s fate, the amoral attitude towards materials and pessimistic determinism in the works as well. Theodore Dreiser, an outstanding representative of naturalistic literature, published his first novel Sister Carrie in 1990, which is a great representative work of naturalist style. This paper will take Sister Carrie as an example to analyze naturalism in it. Controlled by outside material wealth and inner desire, Carrie is devoid of free will and lack of rational reflection. Deprived of her own identity, Carrie completely throws herself upon environment and heredity. Through analyzing Sister Carrie, some inspirations could be drawn to our modern life that the young people should be self-esteemed and self-confident, trying hard to overcome the adverse factors, being the master of our own fates.

Key Words: naturalism; environmental factor; hereditary factor; pessimistic determinism

摘  要:自然主义指19世纪90年代兴起,20世纪流行于欧美的一种文学思潮。其主要特征是真实地描述生活;强调环境和遗传因素对人命运的决定性作用;以非道德的态度看待作品中的人物行为,作品中有很强的宿命论。作为自然主义的典型代表,德莱塞于1990年发表了他第一部自然主义小说《嘉莉妹妹》,一部伟大的自然主义著作。本文将以德莱塞的《嘉莉妹妹》为例,分析其中所体现的自然主义特征。在外界物质财富和内心欲望的驱使下,嘉莉没有了自由的意志和理性的思考,她无法控制自己的命运,继而揭示自然主义观点,即人类的命运受制于遗传和环境因素。通过分析《嘉莉妹妹》中的自然主义,给我们现代生活一些启示,即年轻人应该自尊自信自强,努力克服不利因素,做自己命运的主人。

关键词:自然主义;环境因素;遗传因素;悲观决定论

 Under the influence of Zola’s naturalism thoughts, Darwin’s evolutionary theory and the rise of European naturalism, American naturalism, also rose at the end of the 19th century as a convincing means to explain the nature of reality. Sister Carrie is American modern novelist Theodore Dreiser’s first work,writing in naturalist style, Dreiser authored Sister Carrie into one of the greatest works of American naturalism. By describing how the rural girl---Carrie came to cities of Chicago and New York, and ultimately went to the success of a course, the work articulated the price of American Dreams.

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