对《唐顿庄园》中间接言语行为的语用分析_商务英语论文
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摘要
1975年,赛尔提出了间接言语行为理论,即一种以言行事是通过另一种以言行事的表达方式间接实现的。所以,人们常常出于礼貌、维护双方尊严等因素,间接的表达自己的真实意图而非直接的通过言语表达。语言学家们认为,格莱斯提出的合作原则和里奇提出的礼貌原则与赛尔提出的间接言语行为有着紧密的联系。
在收集间接言语行为语料的过程中,作者发现间接言语行为不仅在语言学领域受到学者们的关注,在人们的日常生活中也十分重要。作为指导人们语言交流的指导性原则之一,合作原则可以很好的解释说话人的字面意思和说话人的真实意图。为了实现顺利的交谈,说话人和听话人在交流的过程中会自然的遵守着合作原则及其准则。然而,在实际的交际活动中,为了某些目的,人们并非完全遵守合作原则。礼貌原则作为合作原则的补充,则解释了为什么人们在特殊情况下要违反合作原则。
本文基于合作原则与礼貌原则,采用解释、描写等方法对《唐顿庄园》中的人物对话进行详细的语用分析,旨在揭示间接言语行为在日常交流中产生的效果以及人们是如何通过违背合作原则和礼貌原则表达其真实意图。通过本文分析可以得出以下两个结论:第一,在大多数情况下,违背合作原则和礼貌原则不会导致日常交流失败。第二,基于合作原则及礼貌原则对人物对话的分析,人们能更好的欣赏《唐顿庄园》。笔者希望通过本文的分析,使观众能够更好的欣赏剧中的对白,并且探讨成功交际的说话技巧从而提高人际交流水平。
关键词:间接言语行为;合作原则;礼貌原则;《唐顿庄园》
Abstract
The Speech Act Theory was first put forward by Austin in 1962. In 1975, Searle proposed the Indirect Speech Act Theory based on Austin’s early study which  illustrates that one illocutionary act is performed indirectly by way of performing another. Therefore, people usually indirectly express their implied intentions owing to politeness. According to linguistics’ research, the Indirect Speech Act has a close relationship with the politeness principle put forward by Leech and the cooperative principle by Grice.
Indirect Speech Act not only draws much attention in the linguistics field but also is important in daily communication. As one of the guiding principles in language communication, the cooperative principle can offer a clear explanation of what the speakers literally means and what they try to imply. In order to realize successful communication, the speakers and the hearers tent to observe the cooperative principle and its maxims naturally. However, in practical communication, people do not always abide by the cooperative principle. The politeness principle, however, as an indispensable supplement to cooperative principle, can give a clear explanation about why people intentionally violate the cooperative principle under certain circumstances.
The thesis adopts description, interpretation and explanation as research methods to conduct a detailed pragmatic analysis of characters’ utterances selected from  Downton Abbey from the perspective of the cooperative principle and the politeness principle, aiming at showing how Indirect Speech Act generates in daily communication and its effect, and how people convey their real intentions by violating the cooperative principle and the politeness principle. Two major conclusions are drawn through the analysis: Firstly, in most cases, violating the cooperative principle and the politeness principle will not lead to an unsuccessful communication. Secondly, people can better appreciate Downton Abbey through the analysis of characters’ utterances. The author hopes to improve the audience’s appreciation of communications in TV series and to improve their interpersonal relationship by probing into successful communicative skills.
Keywords: Indirect Speech Act; the cooperative principle; the politeness principle;Downton Abbey


 

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