苔丝悲剧命运的多重原因分析_英语文学论文
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摘  要

托马斯•哈代是英国杰出的批判现实主义小说家及诗人,《德伯家的苔丝》是他的经典之作。苔丝正是他笔下的典型悲剧人物。她善良、美丽、单纯又有责任心,本应该掌握自己的人生,拥有一个美好的未来。然而,结果却恰恰相反。是什么造成了她的悲剧命运呢?原因有很多。本文将采用比较、引用、定性分析以及个案分析法来介绍作者哈代、小说的主要内容,以及详细分析作品中人物的性格特征。从维多利亚时期的社会背景、家庭环境以及主人公的性格特征剖析苔丝的悲剧命运。同时,抨击了不合理的的社会制度、死板的传统道德、伪善的宗教对一个纯洁少女的无尽摧残。通过这些原因分析,我们更清楚地掌握资本主义的本质,从而帮助我们进一步了解19世纪末人们的凄苦生活。

关键词:哈代;苔丝;维多利亚时期;悲剧命运;原因
 
Abstract

Thomas Hardy was an outstanding critical and realistic English novelist and poet. As we know, Tess of the D’Urbervilles was one of Hardy’s representative books. The classic and the tragic heroine in this book was no other than Tess. Tess was a kind-hearted, attractive, pure and responsible girl. She should have the right to control her own life and have a bright future; however, the result was opposite. She did not get what she should have but suffered from the bitterness and tragedy that life and society imposed on her. What caused Tess’s tragic fate? The reason was multiple. This paper will adopt comparative method, citing method, qualitative analysis method and case study method to introduce the author Hardy, including his life and his writing experience, the main idea of the book and protagonists’ characters. As the key point of this paper, protagonists’ characters will be analyzed in detail. Then we can find out the reasons of Tess’s tragic fate from social background of the Victorian age, the family environment and the characters’ personality of protagonists. Meanwhile, it also criticizes the unreasonable social system, the rigid traditional morality and the hypocritical religion, which totally destroy the pure maiden, Tess. In addition, by analyzing these factors, we can more clearly grasp the nature of capitalism in Victorian age, which can help us further understand the people’s bitter life in the end of the 19th century.

Key words: Hardy; Tess; Victorian era; tragic fate; reasons

1 Introduction
Tess of the D’Urbervilles is a novel by Tomas Hardy. At the beginning, it was refused to publish. However, it became one of the Hardy’s most popular works at last.
Tess of the D’Urbervilles was the true reproduction of the end of the 19th century and it accurately reflected the British lower farmers’ miserable life. The story of Tess of the D’Urbervilles happened in the 19th century when Britain stayed in the Victorian era.

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