严复的反常规翻译方法——以《天演论》为例_翻译专业英语论文
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Abstract

The skopos theory was proposed in the 1970s and is a core of functionalist translation theories. According to this theory, more than the simple switch of different languages, translation is a purposeful human action, and the translational action is determined by the very purpose. In addition, the target reader is also an essential factor of translation. In order to implement the function and realize the purpose of translation, the translator can adjust the approaches to the cultural background of the target language and readers.
Based on the skopos theory, in this article, we first study Yan Fu’s purpose of his translation of Tian Yan Lun, and then study his unconventional translation approaches in the book used to cater to the target readers by comparison and illustration.
It is found that when translating Evolution and Ethics, Yan Fu had a definite purpose, which was to alarm more Chinese people to save the country from peril. Besides, Tian Yan Lun also had its specific target readers, the literati and officialdom of feudal China. Compared to Evolution and Ethics, Yan made many “unfaithful” adjustments in his translation in the aspects of structure, content, language, etc. Actually, all the unconventional translation approaches were intentionally chosen to appeal to the target readers and furthermore achieve his aim.

Keywords:skopos theory; Tian Yan Lun; unconventional; target reader

摘要

目的论源于20世纪70年代,是功能主义翻译理论的核心理论。该理论认为翻译不仅仅是语言符号的转换,而且是一项非语言行为。目的是翻译行为的决定性因素,翻译符号的使用是为了达到一定的目的,而且在这一过程中,必然会涉及不同的跨文化模式。翻译目的论的定义是:“在目的语背景下,为目的语的目的和目的语环境中的读者来生产一个文本。”其基本概念是:决定翻译过程的主要因素是整体翻译行为的目的。同时,受众也是翻译行为中的一个关键因素,译者可以根据翻译的目的,结合目的语文化和预期受众的文化知识背景,来调整具体的翻译策略,以实现翻译的功能,即达到译者的翻译目的。
本文以弗米尔的翻译目的论为切入点,以《天演论》为例,结合时代背景等因素,研究了严复的翻译目的及翻译文本的预期受众。同时,本文通过与原文Evolution and Ethics的比较和实例论证,研究严复为实现自己的目的、迎合预期受众所采用的一些反常规翻译方法。
笔者经过研究发现,在翻译Evolution and Ethics时,严复的翻译目的十分明确——警醒世人救国救民,同时其预期受众也极具针对性——受过良好教育并掌权的士大夫阶层。因此较原文而言,严复在结果译文《天演论》中就结构、内容、语言等方面都做出了很多调整,如采用古典文学体裁、增补、加按语等。事实上,这些反常规的翻译策略都是严复为实现其翻译目的,并结合其文本受众所做出的选择。

关键词:目的论;《天演论》;反常规;受众

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